Plain TeX

This is a help file for Plain TeX. It was derived from Anthony Starks Plain TeX Reference.

This page is under development. It is not available anywhere else at this time. Suggestions welcome.

Table of Contents

Computer Modern Font Family

The standard Computer Modern family includes the following fonts:
cmr
Roman (5--10pt)
cmmi
Math Italic (5--10pt)
cmsy
Math Symbols (5--10pt)
cmex
Math Extension (10pt)
cmss
Sans serif (10pt)
cmssqi
Sans serif quote italic (8pt)
cmssi
Sans serif Italic (10pt)
cmbx
Bold Extended (10pt)
cmtt
Typewriter (8--10pt)
cmsltt
Slanted typewriter (10pt)
cmsl
Slanted roman (8--10pt)
cmti
Text italic (7--10pt)
cmu
Unslanted text italic (10pt)
cmmib
Bold math italic (10pt)
cmbsy
Bold math symbols (10pt)
cmcsc
Caps and Small caps (10pt)
cmssbx
Sans serif bold extended (10pt)
cmdunh
Dunhill style (10pt)

Standard Font Definitions

Plain TeX defines the following control sequences for font selection:
\rm
Roman
\sl
Slanted
\it
Italic
\bf
Bold
\tt
Typewriter
$\oldstyle ...$
Old Style numerals
$\cal ...$
Caligraphic capitals

Magnifications

Plain TeX defines the following magnifications:
\magstep0: 1000 (normal size)
\magstephalf: 1095 (1.095 times normal size)
\magstep1: 1200 (1.2 times normal size)
\magstep2: 1440 (1.44 times normal size, etc.)
\magstep3: 1440
\magstep4: 1728
\magstep5: 2074
\magstep6: 2488

Dimensions

pt: Point
pc: pica (12 pt)
in: inch (72.27 pt)
bp: Big point (72 bp = 1 in)
cm: Centimeter
mm: Millimeter
dd: Didot point
cc: cicero (12 dd)
sp: Scaled point (65,536 sp = 1 pt)
ex: Nomimal x-height
em: Nominal m-width

Accents

\'o = Grave ()
\'o = Acute ()
\^o = Circumflex ()
\"o = Umlaut ()
\~o = Tilde ()
\=o = Macron (``bar'') ()
\.o = Dot ()
\v o = Hacek (``check'') ()
\u o = Breve ()
\H o = Long Hungarian umlaut ()
\t oo = Tie-after accent ()
\c o = Cedilla ()
\d o = Dot-under ()
\b o = Bar-under ()

Special Letters

\oe,\OE = French ligature OE (, )
\ae,\AE = Latin/Scandanavian AE (, )
\aa,\AA = Scandanavian A-with-circle (, )
\o,\O = Scandanavian slashed O (, )
\l,\L = Polish supreesed-L (, )
\ss = German sharp S ()
\dag = Dagger ()
\ddag = Double-dagger ()
\S = Section mark ()
\P = Paragraph mark ()
\copyright = Copyright symbol ()

Paging and Insertions

\headline={stuff}
Define header
\footline={stuff}
Define footer
\raggedbottom
Variable bottom margin
\folio
Current page number
\nopagenumbers
Blank footer
\footnote{mark}{text}
Define footnote
\topinsert{stuff}\endinsert
Floating insertion
\midinsert{stuff}\endinsert
Insert mid-page
\pageinsert{stuff}\endinsert
Full page insertion

Category Codes

0 Escape character (\)
1 Beginning of group ({)
2 End of group (})
3 Math shift ($)
4 Alignment tab (&)
5 End of line (^M)
6 Parameter (#)
7 Superscript (^)
8 Subscript (_)
9 Ignored character (NUL)
10 Space ( )
11 Letter (A..Z and a..z)
12 Other
13 Active character (~)
14 Comment character (%)
15 Invalid character (DEL)

Ligatures

ff ()
fi ()
fl ()
ffi ()
ffl ()
-- ()
--- ()
`` ()
'' ()
?` ()
!` ()

Math Characters

\alpha ()
\beta ()
\gamma ()
\delta ()
\epsilon ()
\zeta ()
\eta ()
\theta ()
\iota ()
\kappa ()
\lambda ()
\mu ()
\nu ()
\xi ()
\pi ()
\rho ()
\sigma ()
\tau ()
\upsilon ()
\phi ()
\chi ()
\psi ()
\omega ()
\varepsilon ()
\vartheta ()
\varpi ()
\varrho ()
\varsigma ()
\varphi ()
\Gamma ()
\Delta ()
\Theta ()
\Lambda ()
\Xi ()
\Pi ()
\Sigma ()
\Upsilon ()
\Phi ()
\Psi ()
\Omega ()
\aleph ()
\hbar ()
\imath ()
\jmath ()
\ell ()
\wp ()
\Re ()
\Im ()
\partial ()
\infty ()
\prime ()
\emptyset ()
\nabla ()
\surd ()
\top ()
\bot ()
\angle ()
\forall ()
\exists ()
\neg ()
\flat ()
\natural ()
\sharp ()
\clubsuit ()
\diamondsuit ()
\heartsuit ()
\spadesuit ()
\coprod ()
\bigvee ()
\bigwedge ()
\biguplus ()
\bigcap ()
\bigcup ()
\intop ()
\prod ()
\sum ()
\bigotimes ()
\bigoplus ()
\bigodot ()
\ointop ()
\bigsqcup ()
\smallint ()
\triangleleft ()
\triangleright ()
\bigtriangleup ()
\bigtriangledown ()
\wedge ()
\vee ()
\cap ()
\cup ()
\ddagger ()
\dagger ()
\sqcap ()
\sqcup ()
\uplus ()
\amalg ()
\diamond ()
\bullet ()
\wr ()
\div ()
\odot ()
\oslash ()
\otimes ()
\ominus ()
\oplus ()
\mp ()
\pm ()
\circ ()
\bigcirc ()
\setminus ()
\cdot ()
\ast ()
\times ()
\star ()
\propto ()
\sqsubseteq ()
\sqsupseteq ()
\parallel ()
\mid ()
\dashv ()
\vdash ()
\nearrow ()
\searrow ()
\nwarrow ()
\swarrow ()
\Leftrightarrow ()
\Leftarrow ()
\Rightarrow ()
\neq ()
\leq ()
\geq ()
\succ ()
\prec ()
\approx ()
\succeq ()
\preceq ()
\supset ()
\subset ()
\supseteq ()
\subseteq ()
\in ()
\ni ()
\gg ()
\ll ()
\not ()
\leftrightarrow ()
\leftarrow ()
\rightarrow ()
\mapstochar ()
\sim ()
\simeq ()
\perp ()
\equiv ()
\asymp ()
\smile ()
\frown ()
\leftharpoonup ()
\leftharpoondown ()
\rightharpoonup ()
\rightharpoondown ()
\joinrel (???)
\relbar ()
\Relbar ()
\lhook ()
\rhook ()
\bowtie ()
\models ()
\Longrightarrow ()
\longrightarrow ()
\longleftarrow ()
\Longleftarrow ()
\longmapsto ()
\longleftrightarrow ()
\Longleftrightarrow ()
\iff ()
\ldotp ()
\cdotp ()
\colon ()
\ldots ()
\cdots ()
\vdots ()
\ddots ()

Parameters

\maxdimen 16383.99999pt
\pretolerance 100
\tolerance 200
\hbadness 1000
\vbadness 1000
\linepenalty 10
\hyphenpenalty 50
\exhyphenpenalty 50
\binoppenalty 700
\relpenalty 500
\clubpenalty 150
\widowpenalty 150
\displaywidowpenalty 50
\brokenpenalty 100
\predisplaypenalty 10000
\doublehyphendemerits 10000
\finalhyphendemerits 5000
\adjdemerits 10000
\looseness 0
\pausing 0
\holdinginserts 0
\tracingonline 0
\tracingmacros 0
\tracingstats 0
\tracingparagraphs 0
\tracingpages 0
\tracingoutput 0
\tracinglostchars 1
\tracingcommands 0
\tracingrestores 0
\language 0
\uchyph 1
\lefthyphenmin 2
\righthyphenmin 3
\globaldefs 0
\maxdeadcycles 25
\hangafter 1
\fam 0
\mag 1000
\escapechar \
\defaulthyphenchar -
\defaultskewchar -1
\endlinechar ^^M
\newlinechar -1
\delimiterfactor 901
\time minute of the day
\day day of the month
\month month of the year
\year year
\showboxbreadth 5
\showboxdepth 3
\errorcontextlines 5
\hfuzz 0.1pt
\vfuzz 0.1pt
\overfullrule 5pt
\hsize 6.5in
\vsize 8.9in
\maxdepth 4pt
\lineskiplimit 0pt
\delimitershortfall 5pt
\nulldelimiterspace 1.2pt
\scriptspace 0.5pt
\mathsurround 0pt
\predisplaysize 0pt
\displaywidth 0pt
\displayindent 0pt
\parindent 20pt
\hangindent 0pt
\hoffset 0pt
\voffset 0pt
\baselineskip 0pt
\lineskip 0pt
\parskip 0pt plus 1pt
\abovedisplayskip 12pt plus 3pt minus 9pt
\abovedisplayshortskip 0pt plus 3pt
\belowdisplayskip 12pt plus 3pt minus 9pt
\belowdisplayshortskip 7pt plus 3pt minus 4pt
\leftskip 0pt
\rightskip 0pt
\topskip 10pt
\splittopskip 10pt
\tabskip 0pt
\spaceskip 0pt
\xspaceskip 0pt
\parfillskip 0pt plus 1fil
\thinmuskip 3mu
\medmuskip 4mu plus 2mu minus 4mu
\thickmuskip 5mu plus 5mu
\hideskip -1000pt plus 1fill
\centering 0pt plus 1000pt minus 1000pt
\smallskipamount 3pt plus 1pt minus 1pt
\medskipamount 6pt plus 2pt minus 2pt
\bigskipamount 12pt plus 4pt minus 4pt
\normalbaselineskip 12pt
\normallineskip 1pt
\normallineskiplimit 0pt
\jot 3pt
\interdisplaylinepenalty 100
\interfootnotelinepenalty 100

Norman Walsh <norm@berkshire.net>
25Apr94